Pan American Union. The Pan American Union is on the block bounded by 17th, 18th, Constitution, and C Streets, NW. It is the secretariat of the Organization of American States, which works to promote economic, social, juridical, and cultural relations among all member states. The property consists of three structures, a stable designed by Benjamin Latrobe(1816), a residence originally designed for the secretary general, and a main building that blends the classical style in vogue at the time of construction (1908-10) with Latin American motifs. The residence and main building are the work of Philadelphia architects Albert Kelsey and Paul P. Cret. The structure is also significant in the history of Pan-American relations. The Pan American Union is part of the Seventeenth Street Historic Area. (NRHP 1969)

Pennsylvania Avenue National Historic Site. This area includes a portion of Pennsylvania Avenue and many of the structures on both sides from Capitol l fill to the White House. The structures span the period from the 18th to the 20th century and include Ford's Theater, several blocks of the city's commercial district, and numerous federal structures. The avenue is significant for its relationship with the L'Enfant plan and its ceremonial function for inaugural parades, state funeral processions, victory parades, and other public ceremonies The structures along its route are also significant for their architecture or historical significance to the city and the nation. (NRHP 1966)

President's Park South. This historic park includes the area bounded by State Place, South Executive Avenue, and Hamilton Place on the north, 15th Street on the east, Constitution Avenue on the south, and 17th Street on the west. It is significant as an important element of L'Enfant's 1791 plan for Washington and as the primary remnant of Andrew Jackson Downing's 1851 landscape design for the National Mall and the adjoining area Its most prominent feature is the Ellipse. It is also the location of the National Christmas Tree, the Bulfinch gatehouses, the Sherman statue (also included in the nomination for Civil War monuments in Washington [?.C.), the First Division Monument, the Butt-Millet memorial fountain, the Second Division Monument, the Zero Milestone, the Original Patentees of the District of Columbia memorial, the Boy Scout Memorial, and the Haupt fountains. (NRHP 1980)

Renwick Gallery of the Smithsonian Institution National Historic Landmark. Constructed in 1859-61 on the northeast corner of Pennsylvania Avenue and 17th Street, NW, this structure was designed in the French Second Empire style by James Renwick and Robert Auchmutz for its benefactor, William Wilson Corcoran, Washington banker and philanthropist. It is significant for the excellence of its architectural detail and its seminal position in the development in the United States of the Second Empire style. It is also significant for its use during the Civil War as the Clothing Department for the Union Army, for its place in the history of American art as one of the earliest public art galleries, and for its use by the U.S. Court of Claims. (NHL 1971)

Riggs National Bank. The Riggs National Bank building was constructed between 1899 and 1902 by the prominent New York firm of York and Sawyer at 15th Street and Pennsylvania Avenue, NW. It was designed in the popular Beaux Arts style known as Neoclassical Revival, featuring a white granite facade, ionic columns, and a pedimented bay over the entrance. It is significant for its architecture and its association with a prominent Washington banking institution since 1836. Often referred to as the "President's Bank", Riggs has served many noted military, political, and civic leaders and has handled many important federal financial transactions, such as cashing the draft paid to Russia for the purchase of Alaska. Riggs National Bank is also a part of the Lafayette Square National Historic Landmark District and the Fifteenth Street Financial Historic District. (NRHP 1971)

Seventeenth Street Historic Area. The area was established by the District of Columbia as a historic neighborhood comprised of four important Beaux Arts buildings. The buildings, constructed between 1897 and 1930, flank the western edge of the Ellipse and President's Park South. They include the Corcoran Gallery of Art, the American Red Cross, the Daughters of the American Revolution (including Constitution Hall and Memorial Continental Hall), and the Pan American Union.


Appendix C: An Inventors and Assessment of Structures and Memorials

Also included is the Van Ness stable, a building related to an early 19th century residential complex designed by Benjamin Henry Latrobe and located at the rear of the Pan American Union property. (DC 1968)

St. John's Church National Historic Landmark. Benjamin Latrobe designed St. John's, which was constructed in 1815-16 in the form of a Greek cross. A later addition transformed it into the Latin Cross extant today. On the northeast corner of 16th and H Streets, NW, it is of brick and yellow stucco with white trim. A lantern cupola sits above a flat dome at the intersection of the wings. An entrance portico with Doric columns fronts the west addition. The structure is significant as the work of a master architect, as a notable example of late Federal architecture, for its association with various presidents and other important American statesmen, and as one of three original structures remaining around Lafayette Park. St. John's Church is also a part of the Lafayette Square National Historic Landmark District. (NHL 1960)

Union Trust Company. Constructed at 740 15th Street, NW, in 1906-7 in the Neoclassical Revival style, the building was twice expanded, in 1927 and again in 1980-83. It is a nine-story concrete and steel structure with granite ashlar facing. The outstanding feature of its two facades is a Corinthian colonnade supporting a simple molded entablature and decorated cornice. It is significant as an excellent example of neoclassical revival architecture by a well-known Washington architectural firm Wood, Donn, and Deming. The Union Trust Building is also a part of the Fifteenth Street Financial Historic District. (NRHP 1984)

U.S. Chamber of Commerce. This structure at 1615 H Street, NW, is a four-story limestone Beaux Arts classical revival building designed by Cass Gilbert, one of the most accomplished architects of the early 20th century, and was completed in 1925. While the colonnaded corner building has been altered over the years, its appearance from the street is virtually unchanged. It is significant for its association with the U.S. Chamber of Commerce, which has represented American business interests in Washington since its inception in 1912. The building is also a contributing element of the Lafayette Square National Historic Landmark District. (NRHP 1992)

U.S. Department of the Treasury National Historic Landmark. The Treasury Building was constructed in stages between 1836 and 1869 and is the work of Robert Mills (1836-42), Ammi B. Young and Alexander H. Bowman (1855-61), Isaiah Rogers (1862-64), and Alfred B. Mullett (1867-69). It is regarded as the most outstanding example of Greek Revival civil architecture in the United States. It was the largest nonmilitary structure undertaken by the government at the time, and it influenced numerous other examples of civil architecture across the country. The building is also a part of the Lafayette Square National Historic Landmark District, the Fifteenth Street Financial Historic District, and the Pennsylvania Avenue National Historic Site. (NHL 1971)

Washington Monument. The Washington Monument nomination roughly covers the area between 14th and 17th Streets and between Constitution Avenue and the Tidal Basin. It includes three structures and a historic marker - the Washington Monument, the survey lodge, the memorial lodge, and the Jefferson pier marker. The Washington Monument, constructed between 1848 and 1885, is an Egyptian Revival obelisk 555' tall, 55' wide at the base and tapering to 34' at the top. It is granite with a white marble overlay. Inside a flight of 899 steps, surrounding a central elevator, climbs to an observation deck in the "pyramidion" that caps the shaft. There are 198 commemorative stones lining the walls of the stairway. The survey lodge, formerly known as the "boiler room," is a small, one-story structure constructed in 1886 of refuse marble and granite. Its basement originally housed the boilers that provided steam to run the elevator in the monument. The memorial lodge was built in. l 888, also of refuse granite and marble, to provide restrooms for visitors, Washington National Monument Society records, and a residence for the monument custodian. It is a flat-roofed, one-story structure with a partial basement. The east front consists of a central porch recessed into the front wall and screened by two marble columns. The Jefferson pier marker is a small monument west and north of the Washington Monument that marks the spot of an earlier marker placed to identify the original L'Enfant proposed location of the Washington

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Monument. The Washington Monument is significant as the nations memorial to the first president, as a major example of 19th century Egyptian Revival architecture, and as a notable accomplishment in structural engineering for its period. It and its landscaped grounds are literally central to the monumental core of the nation's capital. (NRHP 1966)

White House. The White House at 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW, was originally constructed 1791-1800, the work of James Hoban. It was reconstructed in 1815 after being burned by British soldiers during the War of 1812. It has been the home of every president of the United States since John Adams. The exterior of the main structure, despite some additions and minor changes, remains much as it was in IB00; the interior has been completely renovated using the historic floor plan. It is significant for its Federal architecture, as a symbol of the presidency, and for the important decisions made within its walls over the years. (NHL 1960)

Willard Hotel. The present Willard Hotel, at 1401-09 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW, was constructed between 1900 and 1904, with an addition in 1925. It is an excellent example of French -inspired eclectic Beaux Arts classicism. It was hailed as Washington's first skyscraper when constructed. It is significant for its architectural excellence, its association with a master architect, Henry Janeway Hardenbergh, and its location as a commercial center for the city of Washington. The Willard Hotel is also a contributing element of the Pennsylvania Avenue National Historic Site. (NRHP 1974)

Winder Building. The Winder Building occupies the northwest corner of 17th and F Streets, NW. It was built in 1847-48 as a commercial venture and later sold to the federal government, although it has always been occupied by governmental agencies. It is a five-story brick building with a basement. Although altered on several occasions, it retains its significance as one of the few remaining pre-Civil War office buildings in Washington. It is notable for its early use of iron beams and its central heating system. The building's main significance lies in its history of military and governmental use. (NRHP 1969)


For a full listing of citations associated with the memorials, see the "Administrative History, the White House and President's Park" (UPS 1995a).

Lafayette Park

Jackson Statue
Sculptor: Clark Mills
Dedication: January 8, 1853

Authorized under an act of Congress on March 3, 1853, with $20,000 appropriated and $12,000 donated by the Jackson Democratic Association of Washington, D.C. Statue cost: $32,000. The cost of the pedestal was $8,000, with monies appropriated by acts of August 31, 1852 ($5,000), March 3, 1853 1$3,000), and May 31, 1854 ($500). The statue represents the first equestrian statue to be cast in Washington, D.C., and the second in the country. It was cast from cannon captured by Jackson at Pensacola, Florida, in 1818. Stephen A. Douglas of Illinois delivered the dedication speech. The inscription "Our Federal Union, It Must Be Preserved," originally planned as part of the monument, was not added to the pedestal until 1909.

Jackson Cannon
Dedication: Date unknown

The four cannon around the base of the Jackson statue were captured in the Battle of Pensacola in 1818. Officials ordered the muzzles of the guns sealed in World War 1. The carriages have been replaced and repaired often. The cannon were cast by Josephus Barnola of Barcelona, Spain. Two bear the Spanish coat of arms of Ferdinand VI and the motto "Violati Regis Fulmina" (Thunderbolts of an Outraged King). These pieces were cast in 1748 and named for two Visigothic kings of Spain in the late 7th and early 8th centuries- "El Egica" (5'5"; cal. 8.6 cm.) and his son "Witiza" (5'5"; cal. 9 cm.). The other two pieces were cast by Barnola in 1773 and were named "El Apolo" (Apollo; 5'11"; cal. 8.9) and "EI Aristeo" (Aristeides; 5'10 1/2; cal. 8.9) after Greek gods. The first reinforce of one of the pieces is engraved with the date of its capture by Jackson at the fortress of San Carlos de

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Appendix C: An Inventory and Assessment of Structures and Memorials

Barnacas, Pensacola, May 28, 1818, and also includes the names of his of ricers.

Memorial Urns

In 1872 Secretary of the Navy George M. Robeson ordered two memorial urns to be cast at the Washington Naval Yard brass foundry. Weighing about 1,300 pounds each and 7' in height, they were installed on granite pedestals in Lafayette Park. In 1879 they were fitted with galvanized iron pans and used for ornamental plantings. They have been moved from their original locations a number of times, most notably in 1936 and 1962.

Bernard Baruch Bench of Inspiration

This bench and plaque, at the northwest corner of the walk that encircles the Jackson statue in Lafayette Park, was dedicated to the memory of financier and politician Bernard Baruch in 1960 by the Boy Scouts of America. Baruch spent many days sitting in Lafayette Park and enjoying the site as an environment where he worked out many of his important plans.


The first lodge for Lafayette Park was built in 1872 on the north side, combining restrooms, a tool shed, and a watchman's booth. Various changes were made in plumbing and other amenities until 1913 when Congress appropriated $3,500 for a replacement building. As contractors began construction on the same site, a flurry of neighborhood protests caused the secretary of war to suspend construction. On November 14, 19l3, he published a notice for public hearing to be held in the offices of the assistant secretary of war on November 18, 1913. After the hearing the secretary of war decided that construction had to resume and on December 12, 1913, the contractor restarted work, finishing the structure on May 15, 1914. The structure is about 12' high and, with the exception of trellises, appears much as it did upon completion. The structure contains a tool room, a room for the park watchman, and two restrooms (now closed).

Brigadier General Tadeusz Andrzei
Bonawentura Kosciuszko Statue

Sculptor: Antoni Popiel
Dedication: May 11, 1910

Given to the American people by the Polish American Alliance and Polish American people. Cost not available. Accepted by a joint resolution of Congress on April 18, 1904. An act of Congress on February 25, 1910, appropriated $3,500 for the dedication of the statue.

Major General Frederick William Augustus
Henry Ferdinand, Baron van Steuben Statue

Sculptor: Albert Jaegers
Dedication: December 7, I 910.

Acts of Congress February 27, 1903, and June 25, 1910, appropriated $50,000 for the statue and pedestal, with $2,500 for the dedication.

General Jean Baptiste Donatien de Vimeure,
Comte de Rochambeau Statue

Sculptor: M. Hamar, Paris
Dedication: May 24, 1902

Statue and pedestal at a cost of $22,500 authorized by acts of March 3, 1901 ($7,500), and February 14, 1902 ($15,0001. Additional acts of March 21 and May 15, 1902, appropriated an additional $10,000 for the expenses of the French government and the Lafayette and Rochambeau families to attend the dedication.

Major General Marie Joseph Paul Yves Roch,
Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de Lafayette Statue

Sculptors: Alexandre Falquiere and Antonin Mercie
Architect: Paul Pujol
Dedication: Unveiled without ceremony April 5, 1891.

An act of Congress March 3, 1885, authorized the memorial and appropriated $50,000 for the statue.

Lafayette Square National Historic Site Plaque

Old Dominion Foundation Plaque

Commemorates the support of the Old Dominion Foundation in the restoration of Lafayette Park; 1979.

Lee House 1858 Marker

Commemorates the history of the Lee family of Virginia and their association with the White House.
Dedication: Society for the Lees of Virginia, 1981.

First Home of the Reserve Officers Association

Honors the Blair-Lee house as the first office of this organization.

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Dedication: Reserve Officers Association, May 1984.

Blair House Marker
Explanatory history of the Blair house. No date.

Blair House Marker
National Park Service, U.S. Department of Interior. No date.

Blair House Marker
Commemorates the residency of Francis Preston Blair, editor of the Globe newspaper during the Jackson administration.
Dedication: Sigma Delta Chi Professional Journalists Society, 1969.

Blair House Marker
A memorial in honor of Leslie Coffelt, the Secret Service agent killed November 1, 1950, in the assassination attempt on Harry S. Truman.
Dedication: President Truman, May 21, 1952.

Blair House Marker
Entrance Gardens
Dedication: Mr. and Mrs. Jack Carroll Massey, Nashville, Tennessee, 1988.

U.S. Treasury Building

Alexander Hamilton Statue
Sculptor: James E. Fraser
Architect: Henry Bacon
Dedication: 1923

Albert Gallatin Statue
Sculptor: James E. Fraser
Dedication: 1947

Proposed by the Democratic Party in 1926, funding and World War II delayed the placement of the statue until 1947.

Liberty Bell (Treasury)

This is a replica of the original bell, cast by Thomas Lester of Philadelphia in 1752. It is on the west side of the Treasury Building. The bell represents one of 54 cast in France and donated to the United States by the six companies representing the American copper industry as part of the Independence Savings Bond Drive, May 15 to July 4, 1950. The bells were given to each of the 54 states and territories by direction of Secretary of the Treasury John W. Snyder. The replica was cast at the foundry of the sons of Georges Paccard in Ancy-Le-Vieux, Haute Savoie, France, and dedicated on December 1,1950. the bell is 45 H in height, 26" wide and has a circumference of 12'. It weighs 2,000 pounds. The supports for the bells were donated by the American Bridge Company, a subsidiary of the United States Steel Corporation. The plaque was donated by Revere Copper and Brass, Inc. The base is of wood. Transportation for the bells was donated by the Ford Motor Company.

Webster-Ashburton Treaty Marker

Commemorates the treaty between the United States and Canada that was signed in the old State Department building on August 9, 1842, and that established the northeastern boundary between the two countries. Erected by the Kiwanis Club of Washington on April 30, 1929.

White House Grounds

Time Capsule
October 13, 1992

Commemorates the 200th anniversary of the laying of the White House cornerstone.

Jackson Milk Trough
Stone Carver: Robert Brown

Originally installed in an underground room under the north portico either in 1817, when the foundations were laid, or in 1829, when the portico was built. One of a pair of troughs that would have been used for cooling buckets of milk. The area under the north portico would have been close to the original kitchen. As of 1881 the cooling room was converted to a bathroom. After 1902 the space was used for coal storage. When a new kitchen and under-ground storage space were installed in 1935, this trough and another broken one were discovered. The trough was placed on the north-east edge of the south lawn in 1935. William Scale states that the trough was carved for President Andrew Jackson by Robert Brown, one of the original Edinburgh White House stone carvers, in 1834.


Appendix C: An Inventory Assessment of Structures and Monuments

Old Executive Office Building


Two 5" brass trophy guns captured by the United States Navy on May I, 1898, from the Spanish Arsenal at Cavete in the Philippine Islands following the defeat of the Spanish Naval Squadron in Manila Bay. Admiral Dewey had the guns sent to the National Museum (now the Smithsonian Institution), and they are now on loan from the Smithsonian's Division of Armed Forces History. The guns were cast in Seville, Spain in 1875, according to plaques attached to the tops of the gun barrels. From 1900 to 1943 there were 29 such pieces of ordnance from the Revolutionary, Mexican--American, and Spanish American wars on display around the Old Executive Office Building. these were later sent to various battlefields or scrapped during World War II.


Anchors L1984.A and B are on loan to the Old Executive Office Building from the Department of the Navy, Navy Historical Center Washington Navy Yard, Washington, D.C. They are Badlt MEG type anchors 76" high, 58" wide, and 75" across. Both are inscribed with "USN" and weigh 1,011 and 1,027 pounds respectively.

State, War, and Navy Building Markers (two
History of the building and a map. No date.
National Register of Historic Places plaque. 1972.

State, War, and Navy Building
History of the Spanish brass trophy guns. No date.

Old Executive Office Building Plaque
Building's history and its placement on the National Register of Historic Places in 1971.

President's Park South

First Division Monument-American Expeditionary
Forces, World War I

Sculptor: Daniel Chester French
Designer: Cass Gilbert
Dedication: October 4, 1924

A public resolution of December 16, 1921 (H J. Res. 81), authorized the placement of the memorial on public grounds without expense to the government. Sponsored by the Memorial Association of the First Division of the U.S. Army in the World War. The World War II extension on the west was designed by Cass Gilbert, Jr., in 1957 under authority of an act of Congress June 25, 1947 (61 Stat. 178). The Vietnam extension on the east was added by congressional act in 1977.

Sherman Monument

Sculptor: Carl Rohl-Smith with Sara Rohl-Smith, Lauritz Jensen, Sigvald Asbjornsen, Stephen Sinding, and Mrs. Theodore Alice Ruggles Kitson.
Dedication: October 15, 1903
Appropriation from Congress by an act of July 5' 1892, in the amount of $50,000 and by an act of March 2, 1895, for $30,000. The Army of the Tennessee contributed $ 11,000. Subfoundation, mosaic, granite curbing, and grounds improvement amounted to $40,055.05 as of 1952. Recent lighting, sidewalks, landscaping, curbing, and other work finished as of 1993 by the Pennsylvania Avenue Development Corporation. Carl Rohl-Smith died before the monument could be completed; it was finished under the supervision of his wife, Sara Rohl-Smith.

Butt-Millet Fountain
Sculptor: Daniel Chester French
Architect: Thomas Hastings
Dedication: None

Public resolution approved August 24, 1912, authorized placement on the grounds at no expense to the government. A memorial fountain established by friends in the memory of presidential military aide Archibald Butt and Fine Arts Commission member Francis Millet, who died aboard the Titanic in 1912

Haupt Fountains
Sculptor: Gordon Newell/James Hunolt
Architect: Nathaniel Owings
Engineers: Palmer, Campbell and Reese
Contractors: Curtin and Johnson
Dedication: None

The 18' square/1' thick Minnesota Rainbow granite fountains weigh 55 tons apiece and were donated by Mrs. Enid Annenberg Haupt. Mrs. Lyndon Johnson made arrangements to install four fountains on the Ellipse to frame the view of the White House in water when seen from the Washington Monument. Through arrangements by Mrs. Albert I). Lasker, president of the Society for a More Beautiful Capital, two granite fountains were donated by Mrs. Haupt



and placed on either side of 16th street on the south side of President's Park. The granite came from the Cold Springs Granite Company and was quarried in Morton, Minnesota. Wallace F. Whitney, vice president of Hydrel Corporation, supplied the fountain equipment. Hand-made brick pavers were supplied by Harry M. Atherton, Jr, of Macon, Inc. Nathaniel Owings, principal in the firm of Skid-more, Owings and Merrill and chairman of the President's Temporary Commission on Pennsylvania Avenue, offered to design the site for the fountains as a gift to the Ellipse project. The National park Service supplied the electrical work. Cost, with donations, $135,653.20.

District Patentees Memorial
Sculptor: Carl Mose
Designer: Delos Smith
Dedication: April 25, 1936

Erected by the National Society of the Daughters of the American Colonists at a cost of $1,000. A marble cenotaph commemorating the original owners of the land who sold their holdings to the U.S. government in order to form the District of Columbia.

Boy Scout Memorial
Sculptor: Donald DeLue
Architect: William Henry Deacy
Dedication: November 7, 1964

Authorized by act of Congress, July 25, I 959 (PL 86-111). Originally scheduled for the Mall, the siting of this monument in President's Park caused controversy in the city of Washington.

Zero Milestone
Sculptor: Unknown
Architect: Horace Peaslee
Dedication: June 4, 1923

On June 28, 1919, the U.S. government permitted the National Highway Marking Association to place a plaster monument to commemorate the start of an automobile trip to San Francisco on July 7, 1919. Congress authorized a permanent marker at no expense to the United States on June 5, 1920. Under the auspices of the Lee Highway Association, the 4' pink North Carolina granite monument was completed in January 1922 and dedicated in 1923.

Civil Engineering Marker (Zero Milestone)

Established by the American Society of Civil Engineers to commemorate the National System of Interstate and Defense Highways in 1974.

Second Division Monument/American Expeditionary Forces Memorial
Sculptor: James E. Fraser
Architect: John Russell Pope
Dedication: July 18, 1936

Sponsored by the Second Division Association at a cost of $60,000 and built under the authority of a I 931 joint resolution of Congress. Additions were made at later dates.

Bulfinch Gatehouses
Architect: Charles Bulfinch
Dedication: 1828

Originally built as gatehouses for the U.S. Capitol, the structures were moved to the corners of 15th and 17th Streets at Constitution Avenue in 1880 and substantially overhauled in 1939.

National Christmas Tree
Dedication: 1923

Lighting of the National Christmas Tree, a Washington tradition since 1923, began on the Ellipse A dut tree was placed at various sites over the years, but the same site has been used since 1954. In 1973 a permanent tree was planted and was replaced in 1976. In 1978 a 30' Colorado blue spruce was donated by Mr. and Mrs. William E. Meyers of York, Pennsylvania.

National Christmas Tree Plaque

A suggested inscription for the plaque as of August 6, 1974, read "A gift of the National Arborist Association 1973."



1. The primary function of the White House is to be the home of the president and the president's family.

Owned by the American people, this world-class museum, historic site, and public stage is, foremost, the home of the presidential family. Regarded and administered as a house and not a palace, the White House represents the American ideal of "family" and "home" -a home in which normal family events take place: weddings, births, deaths, and other family milestones.

The White House has been the residence of every American president except George Washington, who chose its location and supervised its construction. The privilege of occupying the mansion is granted by the American people, and the routine succession of its inhabitants is a reaffirmation of the ideals of American democracy.

As the home of presidents, the White House must serve the needs of the presidential family, just as any American home serves its occupants. It must offer these active families opportunities for privacy, protection, and recreation. This is increasingly difficult in this very public house. The White House is the only official residence of a head of state that is regularly open to the public free of charge. Additionally, the White House must serve the president as the location for official and ceremonial functions, many of which convey national and international significance. The nation's front yard is the president's back yard.

The struggle to maintain privacy in this "fishbowl" is intensified by the public's fascination with the private lives of presidential families, both past and present. The prospect of "looking through the keyholes" at life behind the public scene presents opportunities for glimpses of presidents and their families that reveal their personalities and characters. Personal family touches-pictures, pets, etc. - heighten the connections to an interested public. For the informed observer, evidence can be found throughout the mansion and grounds that provide windows into the lives of past presidents and the use of the White House over time.

2. The White House is a symbol of the presidency, of a free democratic society, and through its continuity, of the stability of our nation.

As the preeminent symbol of a stable democracy in an ever-changing world, the White House has come to represent democracy for all the world's citizens, and its occupants serve as the voice of democratic ideals. The continuity of this image is reinforced by, and in great part derived from, the peaceful transfer of power, from George Washington to the present.

As the embodiment of our nation's point of view, the White House is the world's focal point for people to express their views. The story of First Amendment expressions at the White House is a narrative of our nation's changing perspectives and the diversity of opinions held by its citizens. Here individuals learn that through the legal process of petitioning the government they have the power to make a difference. Many also learn that there are costs and rewards for taking an unpopular stand.

President's Park provides a critical role in the right of peaceful protest and petition before the White House. People feel safe and protected as they speak their views at this site. This right is carefully preserved, along with public access to the White House, and is symbolic of our commitment to democracy. Free public access to the White House has been a unique privilege since 1801, a privilege not accorded in other countries.

Although the White House and President's Park continue to evolve to meet the changing needs of the president, efforts are made to maintain the symbolic stability of the site by perpetuating its architectural and landscape integrity. This integrity provides ever-present evidence of the continuity of our ideals and the enduring opportunity for all people to reach out to their leaders.



3. President's Park, as a primary element of the federal city, serves as a stage for active participation in the democratic process, and is linked by Penusylvania Avenue -- America's main street -- to the legislative and judicial processes on Capitol Hill.

The significance of the White House and President's Park can be more fully appreciated and understood when viewed in the context of its cultural landscape. Based firmly on 19th century landscape concepts, the physical relationships embodied in the design and layout of the District of Columbia illustrate the foundation of the American form of democracy-the divisions and connections of power between the three branches of government. The evolution of plans for the federal city, from its original design by Charles Pierre L'Enfant to its present configuration, represent the ongoing evolution of government and philosophically differing points of view regarding the separation of powers.

Throughout the development of the federal city the White House has remained a pivotal element of the L'Enfant plan. The open spaces of President's Park serve as the focal point of the hopes, moods, and concerns of the local community, the nation, and the international community. These spaces also serve as oases for local residents and visitors seeking quiet and recreation in an urban setting, perceptibly enhanced by its proximity to this greatest of American houses. Special events and First Amendment activities all take on a greater relevancy and sense of excitement in the shadow of the White House.

As the District of Columbia has grown around it, the continuity of the President's Park landscape, its relationship with the other federal government buildings, and its continued public access symbolize the stability of our government, the growth in prestige of the office of presidency, and the long heritage of all peoples of the country.

4. The White House is a mirror and magnifier of the nation's cultural, recreational, and topical history.

Throughout its history, the White House has reflected, enhanced, and influenced the nation's events and phenomena in a variety of subject areas.

The people of the world look to the White House for expressions of our collective American cultural identity. Presidents throughout the years have attempted to represent and showcase the many cultures that make up American society. This cultural diversity is represented in historical and present-day expressions of the arts, crafts, entertainment, and foods of the United States and the world.

As the premiere American family, the lifestyles of the presidential family exert a great influence on the trends of American culture. The foods, music and entertainment at White House dinners, both public and private, hold a great fascination for the public and are extensively reported in the news media. Fashions worn at the White House reveal the nation's social and economic climate and are widely imitated for popular use. Foods eaten or not eaten by the president can influence the tastes of people nationwide. Thomas Jefferson's White House macaroni dinners, Ronald Reagan's penchant for jelly beans, George Bush's dislike for broccoli-each has had its influence on the populace. The dining habits of the presidential family can confirm trends, such as the recent shift to healthier cuisines or the past elimination of alcoholic beverages. Equally, the recreational pursuits of the president confirm and set trends in American leisure activities.

Venerated as an icon of the American way of life, the White House has taken on a nearly sacred status in the American psyche. Events of great consequence-both sad and joyful-spontaneously draw large numbers of people to the White House to share in a collective experience.

5. The White House is the seat of the executive branch of government.

From its inception, the White House has been the primary office of the president, in addition to serving as his home and more recently as a museum. The power associated with the White House emanates from this function as the Executive Offce of the President. This is the place where people come in direct contact with their highest elected representative. This is the platform


Appendix D: Primary Interpretive Themes

from which the president communicates with the world, using the powerful symbolism of the White House to achieve desired behavior and actions. Simply hearing the words "Oval Office" conjures up all the authority and power of the presidency.

The evolution of location and size of the president's office and executive support staff tells the story of the growth in the power of both the United States and its chief executive. Significant in this story is the development of the West Wing and the Oval Off ice. Also figuring prominently are the immediately adjacent Old Executive Office Building and the Treasury Building, as well as their predecessors, the original State, Treasury, War, and Navy buildings. Together these buildings concentrated and defined the power of the president. Today, proximity to the White House is perceived as an expression of executive authority.

Within the White House complex many different government agencies and public institutions must co-exist to serve the president and the public, while preserving the integrity of the White House. Most visible among these is the role played by the news organizations in keeping the connections open between the public and the president.

The White House roles as office and home are most clearly integrated during the many official functions held on the site. Receiving and entertaining guests at the White House serves as one of the president's most powerful tools in communicating with the world.

In addition to serving as the office of the president, the White House serves as the office of the first lady. The development of this function, from a primarily social function to one of administrative importance, chronicles the growth in the public influence of the first lady.

6. Many people from different backgrounds and cultures have been essential in the growth and operation of the White House as the home and office of the president.

The story of the White House and President's Park cannot be told without accounting for the many people behind the scenes that have made it all possible. Frequently, the impacts and contributions of these people have been little understood by the American public

Few people realize that the original laborers and stonecutters constructing the White House were African-American slaves hired from their masters. Many other cultures were represented at the construction site; most of the crews were comprised of emigrant skilled workers and indentured laborers. As an example of this cultural diversity, the planner of the federal city was French, the designer of the President's House was Irish, and the stonemasons were Scottish.

From cooks to plumbers to U.S. Secret Service agents, a look behind the scenes at today's White House illustrates the diversity of people and professions who come together to make the site work. Permanent residence staff that continue from one administration to the next work closely with special assistants who serve a particular president. Business as usual at the White House may have its routine, but it is never ordinary, for there is a mystique and a special pride to working at the White House. That pride is evident whenever a member of the staff describes the manner in which they serve the president.

7. The White House is an example of the continuum of history-through its stories as well as its artifacts.

The White House is an extraordinary living museum whose collections of rare and fine art, furnishings, and objects, many of which are associated with presidents and their families, make it possible for people to come into direct physical and emotional contact with our nation's history.

The White House has served as a showcase for the best of America, beginning with an exhibition by Thomas Jefferson of objects collected on the Lewis and Clark expedition. Today the White House contains one of the best decorative and fine arts collections in the United States. The careful observer can detect the changes in values and attitudes of different presidential families through the changes in the use of artifacts and decorations.

But what makes the White House truly extraordinary is that it is the only museum in the world in which history is made daily. It is this aspect that

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makes a visit to the state rooms so exceptional; the rooms in which visitors stand during morning tours are the same rooms where history-making events may take place later in the day.

Echoes of the personalities that shaped our history - their aspirations and political beliefs - and the events that took place here can still be found throughout the White House. John Adams's prayer carved on the mantel of the State Dining Room is an obvious example. Many older visitors to the Diplomatic Reception Room can still hear Franklin D. Roosevelt addressing the nation during his fireside chats. The magic of rolling Easter Eggs on the White House lawn is probably much the same today as it was for the first egg rollers in 1879.

If the White House is a capsulized version of American history, then the stories of the men and women who have produced this institution are the stories of America itself. Many were powerful and well-known. Others have labored in obscurity, performing essential tasks. Through the discovery of their stories and the legacy of their material culture, we discover ourselves.

8. The stability of the design and architecture of the White House and President's Park is a product of continuing adaptation to changing needs and technology.

Originally a product of 18th century design, the White House and President's Park exhibit over two centuries of borrowed traditions and American ideals. Employing European models, the original planners and designers - George Washington, Pierre Charles L'Enfant, and James Hoban - created a distinctly American mansion that reflected the mentality of its builders, as well as that of the nation at that time. The resulting building is still thought to be one of the finest examples of American architecture and craftsmanship.

Even though the house and grounds were designed to serve all foreseeable needs of the presidency, it was not long before modifications were introduced to address the needs and attitudes of its changing occupants. These are dramatically illustrated by the work of Thomas Jefferson, whose building additions and landscape alterations created a more functional and "republican" estate. Over time, greenhouses have been built and removed, wings have been added and modified, gardens and recreation spaces have evolved according to the vision of the presidential family. Presidents continue to affect the landscape of the White House grounds through the planting of ceremonial trees. Many technological improvements have been added. Each change has built upon the legacy of the past and has helped ensure a livable, workable complex capable of meeting the needs of the president and the agencies that serve and protect him. Most of the modern changes to the White House complex have occurred in the wings and basements and are not readily visible to the public.

The White House has reflected the personality of each presidential family, mirroring their style of public and private life, as well as their political sensibilities. Yet through all this the White House has remained remarkably stable in appearance. Great care has been taken to maintain its historic image, each president respecting the historical associations of the mansion. As a result, the White House has retained its traditional appearance, much of its furnishings and decor, and even many of the memorabilia of its occupants. A stable White House is a symbol for a stable nation. This symbolism is, perhaps, no better illustrated than President Monroe's decision to rebuild the mansion in nearly its exact form after its burning in 1814.

The landscape of President's Park has undergone substantive modifications, yet it too has remained virtually the same since the late 1 9th century. The other two major buildings of President's Park, the Treasury and Old Executive Office Buildings, illustrate the changing fashion of American architecture and the growing power of the U. S. government. Many of the changes in the park landscape reflect the evolution of public use and conceptions of open spaces and the perspectives of the American people. Memorials throughout President's Park evidence the nature of U.S. heroes. Lawns that once supported Union troops are now the scene for impromptu ball games. These same spaces must also serve as stages for presidential ceremonies. First Amendment demonstration areas, and special event sites.

Stability through flexibility is the keynote of President's Park and the White House.


APPENDIX D: Primary Interpretive Themes

9. 'The responses of presidents and first ladies to the challenges of the presidency provide important lessons in their varying capabilities to handle difficulties.

Almost immediately upon occupying the White House, presidents and first ladies often are viewed as heroes of the American culture. The so called "honeymoon period" at the outset of each new administration is evidence of America's willingness to see a president succeed. Yet, only with a historical perspective can an administration be judged as successful or a president's career as exceptional.

Presidents and first ladies come from all walks of life. Some were perceived as great leaders, both political and inspirational, long before ascending to the presidency Others were virtual unknowns who achieved greatness through their deeds while occupying the White House. Some failed to live up to the public's expectations at that time, only to have history appraise their administrations as distinguished.

The political climate and exigencies of the period can significantly influence the character of the presidency and the perceived greatness of a president. Would Abraham Lincoln be exalted among American presidents if there had been no Civil War to challenge him to monumental deeds? Would Lyndon Johnson's Great Society program have placed him on the same level if there had not been the ordeal of the Vietnam War?

First ladies, too, have frequently risen from positions of unsung supporters of their husbands to positions of national influence. The importance of the role of first lady and her ability to make a significant national impact has grown slowly, with the reluctant acceptance by the American people of women in public life. How many potentially great first ladies had to suppress their aspirations or remain hidden behind their husbands? Equally, how many potentially great presidents were never given the opportunity because they were people of color or other minorities?

The perception of greatness is a fluid balance between the realities of the daily challenges demanded by the job and the illusions generated by the aura of the presidency. This perception is enhanced not only by the deeds of these famous men and women, but by the very symbolism of the White House itself. Presidents and first ladies have clearly used this symbology to further their personal and public aspirations. all the while hoping to leave a permanent legacy for the American culture.

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Construction Techniques

A number of factors were considered in determining the type of construction techniques that would be the most appropriate for proposed underground facilities within President's Park. The primary consideration is to minimize impacts to adjacent structures, specifically historic buildings and the cultural/natural resources of the site. Quantitative factors like the depth of the excavations, utility size and locations, disruption to local traffic, size of the proposed corridors, geotechnical data, and construction cost were also considered.

Selected Construction Techniques

Most of the considered techniques fall into two general categories: cut-and-cover or tunneled (the cost table for each alternative identifies the construction technique for each belowground facility). Cut-and-cover is the simplest and most cost-effective method. It is used for relatively shallow excavations that usually do not exceed a depth of 35' to 40'. Excavation is an open trench where the sides are either sloped back or supported by sheet pile walls and soldier piles in confined areas. This construction technique would include the White House visitor center, the Ellipse parking structure, the northside parking structure, and portions of pedestrian corridors.

Mined tunnels are constructed with no disruption to the surface except at periodic locations referred to as "mucking shafts" or "jacking pits," which are used for the removal debris or the delivery of construction materials. A temporary lining is erected as the face of the tunnel is advanced. The most common method is referred to as "jacked pipe tunnel." This technique lessens the potential for settlement to structures and surface improvements, and it is recommended in areas where pedestrian/ service corridors cross below streets with major utilities or pass below structures or monuments.

Other Construction Considerations

A number of other factors in addition to the selected construction techniques need to be considered as part of the total construction process. These factors may affect the site or adjacent sites, depending on the type and size of the proposed construction project and generally include the following:

* a staging and mobilization area for the contractor's office trailer, employee parking, stockpiling of soils and materials, equipment and tool storage

* designated construction access for truck routes, detour routes, and traffic control for local commuters and pedestrians-To reduce impacts, the possibility of construction during non-peak or evening hours would be explored.

* noise control

* infrastructure issues of relocating utilities, disposing of excavated materials, and stockpiling of usable materials; dewatering of the excavations and disposing of the potentially polluted water

* safety and security during construction.

* visual shielding of construction projects by fencing materials appropriate to the setting

Phasing for the Proposed Plan

Phasing for the proposed plan is based in general on the desired futures that were developed for the White House and President's Park. Its purpose is to recommend a logical construction sequence and phasing of activities that would be compatible with the long-range vision for the White House and President's Park. The actions are grouped in four five-year phases; phasing for the alternatives would follow a similar sequence. Specific actions could be moved to another phase at a later date to take advantage of funding or scheduling opportunities.


APPENDIX E: Construction Techniques, Phasing, and Cost Estimates

Phase I

Construct the parking garage and storage area beneath Pennsylvania Avenue; construct the first phase of the West Executive Avenue facility; construct the pedestrian corridor from the garage to the West Executive Avenue complex.

Construct the pedestrian/service corridor from the storage area at the east end of the northside garage to the Executive Residence.

Construct the pedestrian/vehicular corridors between me New Executive Office Building and the northside parking garage.

Lease 850 staff perking spaces on an interim basis.

Develop and landscape the informal gardens and walkways on the Ellipse.

Repave the Ellipse drive and doglegs with special pedestrian paving materials.

Construct the special events plaza at the northeast corner of the Ellipse.

Lease an interim satellite maintenance facility for President's Park.

Undertake E Street improvements (landscaped island, separate White House restricted access lane).

Phase 2

Remodel and expand the White House visitor center in the Commerce Building.

Construct the belowground pedestrian corridor from the visitor center to Lily Triangle and the ongrade vestibule.

Develop and landscape Lily Triangle.

Construct the entryway at E Street and 1 5th Street.

Remodel the NPS grounds maintenance building on the south grounds of the White House.

Phase 3

Complete the belowground complex at West Executive Ave. including (1) the news media facility, (2) meeting space, (3) the east-west pedestrian/ service corridor from the Old Executive Office Building to Treasury, and (4) indoor recreation space for the first family.

Complete utilities.

Phase 4

Complete the development of West Executive Avenue with special paving material and landscaping

Construct the Ellipse parking garage.

Construct the entryways along Constitution at 1 5th and 1 7th Streets and at 1 7th and E Street.

Complete the sidewalk paving along 17th Street from State Place to E Street.

Complete the sidewalk paving along Constitution Avenue from 1 5th to 1 7th Streets.

Complete all remaining special pedestrian paving along East Executive Avenue, Hamilton and State Places, South Executive Avenue.

Cost Estimates

The cost estimates are for capital or development costs only, and they do not include annual operating, staffing, and maintenance costs. They are based on generalized unit construction costs and do not reflect all cost variations as a result of site specific conditions (such as soil and groundwater considerations). The estimates are primarily useful for comparing the alternatives. More precise costs would be developed during subsequent design phases once a proposed plan has been approved. The estimates do not include costs for relocating or upgrading utilities; these costs would be estimated during design phases.



FY 1998 Costs
Action/Facility Belowground Construction Method Gross Construction Cost Advance and Project Planning Cost Total Cost
Install eight pedestrian entryways . 5,286,000 448,000 5,734,000
Conduct site work:

* Replace existing pavement, structures, trees sidewalks, gates, footings, and curbs.
* Install new landscaping-topsoil, plant materials, planters, flower beds, sprinkler
* Provide new signs and displays, benches, street furniture, drinking fountains, street lighting
* Bring in fill to improve drainage
. 53,074,000 4,498,000 57,572,000
Executive Residence
First family indoor recreation space:
Construct new belowground facilities north of White House (3,000 sq ft; if existing space could be used, the cost would be less) cut/cover or tunnel 2,124,000 180,000 2,304,000
Onsite storage:
General storage for frequently used items - Construct as part of northside facility (10,000 sq. ft.: 80' x 120') cut/cover 4,720,000 400,000 5,120,000
Fine and decorative arts-Remodel existing space within Executive Residence or Immediately adjacent (2,000 sq ft) 1,770,000 150,000 1,920,000
Executive Office Support Functions
Parking facilities for motorcades, diplomatic and business visitors, and staff:
* Northside-Construct two belowground levels
Level 1: 100 vehicles
Level 2: 190 vehices
. 290 vehicles
cut/cover 20,053,000 1,699,000 21,752,000
* Ellipse parking garage-Construct two belowground levels:
Level 1: 350 vehicles
Level 2: 500 vehices
. 850 vehicles
cut/cover 58,776,000 4,981,000 63,757,000
Belowground pedetrian/vehicle service corridors:
* NEOB to northside garage- pedestrians/vehicles (310'; 15' high 40' wide; 11' vehicle lanes- two 6' moving walkways, 6' utility corridor) tunnel under townhouses; cut/cover on Jackson Pl. 8,852,000 750,000 9,602,000
* Northside garage to West Executive Ave facility - pedestrians (240' corridor, with moving walkways; 15' high x 20' wide) cut/cover 3,427,000 290,000 3,717,000
* Northside storage facility to White House-pedestrians/electric vehicles (220' moving walkway plus separate vehicle lane; 15' high x 30' wide) tunnel 4,712,000 399,000 5,111,000
Ellipse garage to northeast Ellipse (500' corridor, 16' high x 20' wide) tunnel 7,139,000 605,000 7,744,000
Ellipse garage to northwest Ellipse (470' corridor 16' high x 20' wide) tunnel 6,711,000 569,000 7,280,000
* OEOB to Treasury - pedestrians (1,000', 15' high x 40' wide) cut/cover; tunnel under north portico 28,556,000 2,420,000 30,976,000
Meeting/conference space:
Construct West Executive Ave. belowground meeting facility:
* Lobby for guests, elevator, small bathroom, drivers' lounge with bathroom (1,000 sq ft; 20' x 50') cut/cover 620,000 52,000 672,000
* Conference rooms-four to five, avg. size 40 people (2,500 sq ft); restrooms (2,000 sq ft); common space with elevators (1,500 sq ft) cut/cover 5,310,000 450,000 5,760,000
News media facilities:
* Construct new space belowground (presidential briefing room, press offices, work areas, lobby, reception, storage, lounge, restrooms, interview rooms, elevator/stairs, electrical/mechanical room; 9,700 sq ft; 108' x 90') cut/cover 6,066,000 514,000 6,580,000
* Upgrade media facilities on upper level of west colonnade (lobby, offices, work spaces; 1,200 sq ft) 566,000 48,000 614,000
Visitor Center and Museum
Commerce Building:
Remodel and expand existing visitor center (60,000 sq ft total):
* Remodel Baldrige Hall for arrival and welcoming (13,000 sq ft) . 4,218,000 358,000 4,576,000
* Complete retrofit of lower levels for museum, sales, educational rooms, labs and storage, restrooms (26,000 sq ft) cut/cover, tunnel 18,762,000 1,590,000 20,352,000
* New construction on lower levels for theaters, circulation and electrical/mechanical (21,000 sq ft) cut/cover, tunnel 17,346,000 1,470,000 18,816,000
White House Tour Facilities
White House access:
Construct underground pedestrian corridor from visitor center to Lily Triangle vestibule (500' pedestrian corridor, with moving walkways: 15' high x 30' wide) cut/cover tunnel under streets 10,708,000 908,000 11,616,000
Lily Triangle vestibule: Construct ongrade vestibule (escalator, elevator, and stairs to ground level; 800 sq ft; 28' x 28') . 1,440,000 122,000 1,562,000
E Street:
Maintain two eastbound traffic lanes, plus an access lane for official White House traffic; provide landscape island between general traffic lanes and restricted access lane . 4,824,000 409,000 5,233,000
Maintenance facility:
Develop a facility as part of the Ellipse parking facility (4,000 sq ft) cut/cover 1,180,000 100,000 1,280,000
Total . 276,240,000 23,410,000 299,650,000

NOTE: Parking would be provided for employees who must respond within a certain amount of time. For other employees, there would be no costs to the government for leasing parking on an interim basis pending the completion of the Ellipse parking facility; in accordance with federal policy, these costs would be paid by individual employees.


Comprehensive Design Plan Continued