Figure 2: Gathering Features/MAP
CAMPS-Camps varied from single tents, tipis or lean-tos, to small clusters scattered throughout the area surrounding Elk Park Many camps were formed by groups with common interests or beliefs Sisters' Camp, Faire Camp, Krishna Camp', or from common geographical areas (New England Regional Family [NERF Camp). Some camps were identified with banners and entrance gates
|Agency||Violation Notices||Written Warnings||Towed Vehicles||Unclaimed|
|Delta County Sheriff||26||0||4||0|
|Colorado State Patrol||223||0||4||3|
*(estimated 300 verbal warnings)
Motor Vehicle Theft
For comparison, arrests made in Delta County in 1991 for the period of June 15 through July 15, totaled 81. In 1992, the total number of arrests for the same period was 125.
of non-violent crimes on Personal Recognizance Bonds in the amount of the associated fine.
Colorado State Patrol
CO Div. of Wildlife
County Social Services
County Health Dept.
County Sheriff Dept.
In addition to the monetary costs, there were costs associated with planned work that did not get done because managers and funds were redirected to the gathering.
to CALM's attention and partially corrected. There was no evidence of surface deposition and all but a few latrines in remote locations were covered after clean up.
This objective was fully met, all refuse and foreign materials were removed from the start, pits were filled, campsites were naturalized, latrines (with few exceptions) were covered, all structures, were dismantled, water lines were removed.
RECOMMENDATIONS AND STRATEGIES
The Rainbow gathering is an annual event on National Forest System lands. Certain resources are required for every gathering and should be committed annually. to eliminate shifting funds and human resources from other projects.
Many personnel familiar with the ICS are not familiar with law enforcement resources and - . second guessing was used in filling resource requests for law enforcement officers and dispatchers resulted in individuals arriving without necessary equipment or training. Special Law Enforcement '~r "categories" need to be developed so that specifically requested resources are ordered in.
a "Category 1" Law Enforcement Officer is an officer with full uniform, defensive equipment ~ :h visibility vehicle; a "Category 2" Law Enforcement Officer is an officer with full uniform and d. !. ! `;. equipment, but no high visibility vehicle; a Law Enforcement Dispatch must have special law enforcement communication and dispatch.
Some people assigned to the incident command team did not have previous experience .
Incident Command System /normally used on project level fires). Personnel with skills in non-fire incidents (e.g. law enforcement) should receive training on the Incident Command System.
There were some problems with name-requests for personnel. Several people reported to the incident without proper paperwork, or proper notification through incident command resource order channels. Name-requests should be handled just as other resource orders.
There are safety concerns for Forest Service and other agency personnel considering number of miles traveled, road conditions, traffic conditions, confrontational situations, potentially hazardous physical situations, mental stress from dealing with Family members and irate publics. Team members need lodging facilities removed from gathering for mental rest and relaxation.
The law enforcement liaison officer worked very well and should be included in the incident command team at future gatherings.
A need for a sociologist as a member of the incident command team was identified, to aid interaction between managers, local residents and Rainbow Family members concerning social behaviors and attitudes' conflict resolution, etc.. (This would also be an additional cost.)
Coordination meetings between cooperating agencies, followed by public information meetings with agency representatives outlining their unified efforts were held periodically throughout the Fathering, with a final close out meeting held July 15. The Delta County Commissioners took the lead role in moderating these meetings. Several meetings were also attended by "unofficial" Rainbow Family representatives. This was an effective arena for concerned citizens to gain accurate information and to air their opinions.
Meetings between the cooperating agencies and local businesses that will likely receive the most impacts from the gathering (convenience stores, gas stations, grocery stores, restaurants, etc.) should be held as soon as the gathering site has been identified. The businesses need to be made aware of the numbers and types of people that will be coming into their area, so they may make preparations for additional help, additional inventory and/or private security.
Health care and emergency services providers need to be involved in early coordination meetings so they are made aware of past gathering incidents and can plan accordingly.
Local fears would be reduced if public meetings can be held as soon as possible and pictures of previous gatherings can be shown to visually represent the event. Fear of the unknown is always greater than fear of the known.
To lessen the impact of large numbers of Rainbow Family members moving through small communities, porta-potties and showers could be set up on the outskirts of towns. This would help direct Rainbow Family movement away from the center of town.
Representatives of cooperating agencies attended daily briefings at the Incident Command Post so all cooperators were kept well informed of happenings/concerns, etc.
Health department, law enforcement personnel and incident command team members from previous gathering should serve as consultants to next Incident Command Team for first two weeks to provide accurate information, quell rumors,- and assist in proactive activity to make gathering management run smoothly.
Rainbow Family representatives should make early contacts with local governments, communities and businesses to identify expectations and needs.
Rumor control was the biggest problem before and during the gathenng. Accurate information needs to be released to the media and public as soon as possible and continued throughout the gathenng.
the Forest P.\O staff initially served on the incident command team, in addition to their routine duties. PAO's specifically assigned to the incident did not arrive on site until June 20, after which a Public Affairs Action Plan was prepared. P.NO personnel need to arrive at the gathenng earlier. so networks can be established to distribute public information, to allay fears and quell rumors early on in the gathenng. Associated costs would be additional.)
Local managers were inundated with both public outcry and public information requests. The majority of the cooperating agencies used the incident command public affairs staff to deal with media releases and requests. This prevented conflicting or inaccurate information from being circulated, and allowed agency personnel to concentrate on management of the gathenng.
Information was distributed internally via a daily Rainbow update transmitted over the Data General network. This was effective in keeping all Forest personnel abreast of the gathering events so they could provide accurate information to the public.
The Rainbow Family as a whole is very environmentally conscious and members were very receptive to any environmental concerns raised by Forest Service and other cooperating agency personnel. The Forest Service also provided some Smokey Bear material to the children at Kiddie Village. There is a good opportunity to distribute instructional materials on camping ethics, health and safety, resource management, natural processes, etc. through the information centers at the gathenng.
Public Affairs personnel were present through the close out of the incident command post, which was very advantageous. They distributed public information concerning the rehabilitation progress at the gathenng site and the management turnover from the incident command team to the local ranger district.
Maintain open communication between ail involved, including the Rainbow Family.
The Forest Service is not perceived as a law enforcement agency and the public was unaccustomed to seeing green-clad officers equipped with defensive apparatus. The Forest Service needs to take opportunities, such as the Rainbow gathering, to inform the public about training and qualifications of their law enforcement agents, to prevent any apprehension that officers may not be adequately trained to serve in a law enforcement capacity.
To differentiate Forest Service law enforcement officers from resource managers, law enforcement agents could be attired in different uniforms. This may protect non-law enforcement Forest Service personnel from dangerous situations if the public knows they are not armed, based on their uniform
Early, heavy presence (as used by all law enforcement agencies) is an effective deterrent aghast infractions. Proactive, not reactive management needs to be emphasized.
Inform gathering participants of all "busts" as further deterrence of similar actions.
Some officers with drug enforcement experience need to be assigned to the incident. If possible . team should be assigned to specifically deal with drug cases. . A dog trained to locate drugs should also be very helpful.
A high level supervisor from the County law enforcement agency should be assigned to the incident command, to facilitate coordination between the Forest Service and County.
There was a concern that the CSP pulled their contingent out of the area too soon (July 7).
During the gathering, the site was visit by personnel from several law enforcement agencies which were not involved in the gathering management. These visitors did not check in with the incident command post or the DCSO. This activity should be discouraged at fixture gatherings. If outside law enforcement agents wish to tour the gathering, they should arrange to make any official tours through the incident command post. Unofficial tours should be discouraged. Curious individuals should tour the area like the general public - not in uniform or official vehicles.
"Jail or Bail" is an effective procedure to use where large numbers of transients and out-of-area people congregate. This procedure serves as a deterrent to violation activities, reduces the burden on the local jails and courts, and increases the chance of fee payment. To prevent a confusing change in direction mid-stream, as occurred at the 1992 gathering, the Forest Service should seek a District Court Order authorizing the "Jail or Bail" procedure prior to the next Rainbow gathering.
Law enforcement officers may be requested from other Federal agencies under the Incident Command System. 1b insure these officers have authority to enforce CFR regulations on National Forest System lands, Memorandums of Understanding need to be in place.
A law enforcement equipment cache needs to be created so it is available for order out of Boise Interagency Fire Center (BIFC). This cache should include items such as latex gloves, flex cuffs, magnetic enforcement shields for vehicles, law enforcement forms, flashlights, violations notices, clipboards, lockable bank bags, etc.
Rainbow Family members maintain communications within the gathering with CB radios. To assist monitoring of emergency situations, each patrol vehicle should be equipped with a CB radio.
The Colorado Division of Wildlife became involved as a cooperating agency in early June. CDOW officers played an important part in law enforcement efforts and expended many hours on incident management. At future gatherings, state wildlife agencies should be involved in incident planning as early as possible.
Pressure from law enforcement officers, as well as some from the Rainbow Family resulted in the closing of "A" Camp before the main gathering occurred. This eliminated problems of "A"-campers panhandling and extorting money and alcohol along access into gathering site, for Family members, managers and the general public. Similar pressure should be applied at future gatherings.
Law enforcement presence in and around the camp after the gathering prodded the Family to cleanup and leave the area. The normal 14-day camping limit was reenacted on July 8, and the law enforcement presence emphasized that the limit would now be enforced.
Terrain in the gathering area resulted in poor communications in some locations and required the establishment of several repeater stations. If possible, a communications survey should be conducted prior to the gathering to facilitate establishment of a good communications system.
Communications failed on several channels on several occasions. Once was due to rodents chewing on the support cables. Repeater sites should be designed to prevent this problem from reoccurring. Other failures were unexplained and possibly due to jamming. It is recommended that communications
specialist with knowledge to detect jamming be assigned to future Rainbow incidents, to prevent jamming.
The Rainbow Family's CALM units at the 1992 gathering were not staffed or equipped to deal emergencies or injures requiring more than basic first aid treatment. As a result, 46 persons treated at the Delta Count Memorial Hospital. Less than half of these people had medical ins [he Family said it only felt responsible for the people referred to the hospital by CALM for Rainbow Family members totaled S10,900, of which the Family paid $300 - which did not even pay for the CALM referred patients. Promises of more money at a later date were not kept. In addition individuals were treated by local physicians. Policies requirng payment before services at lock reduced losses. Where adequate identification and insurance is not available, the Family s} requested for payment up front.
Emergency medical services can be heavily impacted, particularly in rural communities services are normally funded by donations. Costs incurred by Rainbow Family members can Ambulance services at future gatherings may be able to work with the Rainbow Family anticipated costs before emergencies occur, in attempts to cut losses.
Forest Service personnel flagged an adequate number of latrine sites, in appropriate however the Family was fax both in digging latrines at flagged locations as well as digging lateness. The Family must be pressured early to dig the required number of latrines for the ant crowd, before the large influx of people occurs.
Latrine sites need to be established at parking areas.
Sanitation lime should be required of the Rainbows. It is low cost and yields high for controlling spread of disease and aids in decomposition of human waste.
water quality monitoring logistics need to be worked out as soon as possible. SIethodolo' lab facilities need to be agreed on to provide current accurate information during the gathering, public health concerns. water quality sampling should be started as soon as the gathering lot known.
Bus village was located in a poor location regarding sanitation aspects. The large conceit of people requires numerous latrine sites, during the course of the gathering, and Bus Village be located accordingly.
Health department personnel should accompany Forest Service personnel in locating sites village, parking areas, Kiddie Village, etc. to help minimize health impacts on the Rainbow population
Health departments need to distribute information on local health concerns to reduce p problems.
, cool weather at the 1992 gathering reduced the chance of serious problems from more severe sunburn, insect bites. Future managers and gathering participants need to keep weather as a factor contributing to human health and safety, and take necessary precautions.
Health department took a passive approach, indirectly getting compliance through suggestion, keeping information simple, rhythmic, common sense, good for fellow Rainbow and mother worked well. Continuous presence of health department prevented major problems from occur
.\ large population of people unfamiliar with wilderness survival techniques arrived for the main gathering. Compliance with required and recommended health standards dropped. The Rainbow Family, health department and Forest Service personnel need to be prepared for this influx and actively educate gathering participants to get better compliance.
Small mammals get into compost pits. This is an unnatural food supply which could result in increased populations and subsequent die offs in following years. Compost pits should be correctly buried or the organic refuse should be removed from the gathering site.
In preparing management strategies for the Rainbow gathering, a review of literature on field sanitation and recreation impacts revealed that little study has been done. There is a great opportunity to study the impacts of large gatherings. Field sanitation methods need to be evaluated to see if any residual health hazards occur.
The Social Services Department(s) at next year's gathering need to be informed about what to expect from an influx of 10-20,000 people, so they can make necessary preparations. Things to consider are:
- The pattern of applications for food stamps. Applications began after June 15 and increased in number through the end of the month. Applications remained high the first two days of July, then dropped off. Application numbers reflected the total Rainbow population trend. Applicants applying in June were checked to see if they received Food Stamps in other states. Many were not approved for Food Stamps in June, but since they applied after June 15, they were approved for July. The Delta County office began receiving calls from other states offices in mid July after Family members moved on to other areas.
- The majority of the individuals applying for Food Stamps were very knowledgeable of eligibility requirements. By claiming to be "homeless" rather than vacationers, it was difficult to certify their eligibility for Food Stamps.
- False Social Security numbers were used in applying for Food Stamps Since applicants can not be verified under the homeless rules, bogus numbers may cause future problems.
- Approximately $21,000 worth of Food Stamps were issued to Rainbow Family members during the 1992 gathering. Delta County was able to absorb this amount because it had a large inventory of Food Stamps. Small counties may not have as large an inventory and would need to increase their inventory to handle the increased requests during the gathering. If Food Stamp applications can be handled efficiently, there will be less problems.
- There were reports of Food Stamps being pooled to buy food for the communal kitchens, which is a Federal violation. The FINS regional office in Denver was notified of this during the 1992 gathering.
Managers need to remember they are dealing myth PEOPLE. They need to find common ,. ground and work from there.
Humor will go a long way. It Drill lessen stress levels in managers. Information couched in humor Oil be better received.
Managers need to identify which Family members are the power people, who has credibility and can make things happen. This can only be learned by working with the Family on site.
Let the Rainbow Family know what is expected of them regarding behavior in local businesses. communities, as well as at the gathering site. Work with them versus against them. .N non-confrontational stance is the only method to deal myth such a large group.
Managers need to remain neutral and focus on management of the event.
Overland Reservoir was located 2, miles from any community and was accessed by several routes. Though this was not a result of management. it did lessen the impacts both within local communities and on access routes. The Rainbow Family should consider a site with similar features for future gatherings.
There were indications that a faction of the Rainbow Family had an agenda to find a cause to take the Forest Service to court over during the 1992 gathering. Several legal issues arose during the gathering - towing, parking and "Jail or Bail'', but have not resulted in court proceedings. Recognize that Rainbow legal activity may have alternative motives.
The event will dominate your life for 2-3 months; but it will go away.
LIST OF COOPERATORS
OPERATING PLAN 1992 RAINBOW FAMILY RATIONAL GATHERING
Conga Ranger District Gunnison National Forest
APPENDIX C REHABILITATION PLAN 1992 NATIONAL RAINBOW FAMILY PAONIA RANGER DISTRICT
GRAND MESA, UMCOMPHAGRE & GUNNISON NATIONAL FORESTS
1992 NATIONAL RAINBOW FAMILY GATHERING GUNNISON NATIONAL FOREST
PAONIA RANGER DISTRICT
SANITATION - For the welfare of all, and to create a positr e image, it is important that everyone consider the handling of human waste a very important matter. Latrines should be used and maintained at the rate of 1 latrine per 100 persons on site. If latrines are not being used, waste should be buried in catholes of at least 6-8. in depth.
GARBAGE/SOLID WASTE - If is can be recycled, deposit it at the recycling stations that are scattered throughout the site. Garbage is being hauled out of the site to local landfills. Dispose of other materials by packing them out with you when you leave,
WATER - All water in the area of the site is owned by the Overland Ditch Company. They are very concerned about the impacts large numbers of people will have on the quality and quantity of water. This water is used for irrigating crops and gardens in the lower valleys. Some families also use this water for domestic purposes. Please do not bauble, wash or swim in the reservoir or streams that enter the reservoir. Boil all drinking water for at least 5 minutes.
SAFE DRIVING - Access to the site is primarily on gravel roads. Keep your speed down and obey all special postings. Law enforcement patrols will be enforcing traffic laws for the safely of all who may be using the roads to access their National Forest. Please drive safe9.
INSECTS - You will find a host of stinging and biting insects in the woods, as well as ticks. Insect repellents have some affect, but in general the bugs are something you'll just have to put up with. Ricks can carry Lyme Disease and Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever. Fleas can carry Bubonic Plague. ~
HYPOTHERMIA - The loss of body heat, lowering of body temperature, due to prolonged exposure to cold is hypothermia. Staying warm and dry is the key to avoiding hypothermia.
ALTITUDE SICKNESS - If you have come in from a low altitude you are advised to sake it easy for a couple of days. Avoid strenuous exercise until your body has a chance to acclimate to the over 10,000 foot altitude of the site. Symptoms could include d~z.:r.ess. headaches and nausea. If symptoms persist, move to a lower altitude.
THUNDERSTORMS/LIGHTNING - Colorado weather patterns this time of year normally include afternoon showers and thunderstorms. For your own safety, do not seek shelter In sparse stands of trees. Lightning is especially deadly in the high country.
ILLNESS/MEDICAL SERVICES - If you become ill at the site we suggest you seek medical assistance as soon as possible. Anyone not feeling well should refrain from kitchen duty. hledicai services are available in neighboring communities. Check with CALM for specific information.
DUST ABATEMENT - During the period beginning 6/24 there will be temporary delays on Stevens Gulch Road, FS Road 701' to facilitate the application of magnesium chloride to the road in order to reduce dust.
PARKING - There is plenty of parking designated near the site. Please observe the NO PARKING/NO CAMPING signs posted along access routes and other roads. ILLEGALLY PARKED VEHICLES WILL BE TOWED AT OWNER EXPENSE. Please cooperate with Rainbow Family parking crews and others directing traffic.. The Rainbow Family will provide shuttle services from the parking areas to the entrance to the main singe.
SPECIAL AREAS - Special areas within the gathering site will be signed and marked. Cultural sites, research areas and sensitive riparian areas should be avoided.
PRIVATE PROPERTY - There are areas near the site which are private lands. Please respect the rights of private land owners and their properties. Landowner permission is required.
HELICOPTER LANDING AREA - With the cooperation of Rainbow Family members, a helicopter landing area is being identified to serve the Gathering site in case of emergency. Once identified, do not camp within the marked perimeter.
PHOTOGRAPHS - You may encounter Forest Service personnel taking photographs of activities and features at the site. Photos will be used for several purposes, including a record of the event. Forest Service personnel will ask permission before a photo is taken.