On Sunday, September 11, 1994, after spending an evening with his brother consuming alcohol and smoking crack cocaine, Frank Eugene Corder asked his brother to drop him off in the vicinity of Aldino Airport in Churchville, Maryland. Corder walked to the airport and found the keys to a Cessna P150 airplane that had been returned to the airport earlier that day after having been rented by another individual. Although Corder was not a licensed pilot, he had taken several lessons in the aircraft and had flown it several times during the summer of 1993.

According to the airplane’s hobbsmeter, which records the engine’s total running time, Corder started the plane’s engine at 1:55 p.m. FAA radar at the Baltimore/Washington International Airport first detected the airplane in the vicinity of York, Pennsylvania, at 1:06 a.m. Precisely what transpired in the interim is unknown.


Corder's flight path from York can be discerned from FAA radar records. He flew south for a short distance and then west. [7] At 1:44 a.m., the National Airport tower began receiving transmissions that showed that Corder was approximately 6.5 miles north of the White House, flying at an altitude of 2700 feet. The aircraft descended approximately 1OOO fee over the next three minutes. At 1:47 a.m., the airplane turned directly sourt. It passed over Washington Circle and entered the prohibited airspace that surrounds the White House at approximately 1:48 .m. The protected airspace, designated as P-56, is a no-fly zone that generally encompasses the White House and the Mall from the Lincoln Memorial to the Capitol. The plane flew toward the Mall descending rapidly.

Corder then passed over the Ellipse and dove directly toward the White House at a steep angle of descent. His plane crashed onto the White House lawn just south of the Executive Mansion ar approximately 1:49 a.m. The aircraft skidded across the ground, struck a magnolia tree just west of the South Portico steps, and hit the southwest. corner of the first floor of the Mansion. The President and First Family were not in the Mansion at the time of the

[7 The exact flight path of Corder, while known and verified, is not being detailed for security reasons.]


crash. They were residing at Blair House while the White House was undergoing renovations. There was minimal damage to the Mansion.

Corder died from multiple, massive blunt-force injuries. Based on the physical evidence, the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) concluded that the crash was intentional rather than a failed attempt at controlled landing. The airplane's velocity on impact clearly exceeded a safe landing speed. Moreover, the airplane’s wing flaps were up and its throttle position was "full forward" neither of which is characteristic of an aircraft in a landing position. At the time of the crash, Corder was thirty-eight years old. He abused alcohol and cocaine, and faced wide array of financial, marital, and legal problems. Both cocaine and alcohol were found in Corder's blood after the crash. The D.C. Medical Examiner ruled Corder's death a suicide. The Review did not discover information inconsistent with this conclusion.

Although Corder had previously expressed dissatisfaction with the policies of the Clinton administration and expressed antipathy to President Clinton, there is no evidence that the purpose of the flight was to hum the President, or any other Secret Service protectee. Prior to this incident, Corder had not come to the attention of the Secret Service as a potential threat to its protectees. It appears that by crashing onto the White House lawn, Corder


was attempting to fulfill an ambition he had expressed to friends to kill himself "in a big way" by flying an airplane into the White House, or into the dome of the Capitol.

Within minutes of the crash, additional Secret Service personnel were dispatched to the scene, a perimeter was established, the Technical Security Division (TSD) and the military's Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) team were called to investigate for explosives, and the Presidential Protective Division (PPD) was notified. In addition, the D.C. Fire Department and paramedics were summoned, and the control tower at National Airport was contacted regarding the crash. Corder's name was also found and reported for investigation.

Within one hour of the crash, individuals representing seven agencies were at the site. In addition to Secret Service and EOD personnel, the FBI, the MPD, AFT, and the NTSB responded to the scene.

Individuals responding to the scene reported that the various agencies interacted efficiently and cooperatively. The work of rendering the scene safe, ensuring that the airplane did not contain explosives, securing the evidence, and initiating the criminal investigation proceeded in an organized fashion.



On Saturday October 29, 1994, at approximately 2:55 p.m., Francisco Martin Duran stood on the south sidewalk of Pennsylvania Avenue in front of the White House. Suddenly, he pulled a Chinese-made SKS semiautomatic rifle from underneath the tan trench coat he was wearing, pointed the barrel of the rifle through the bars of the White House fence, and fired multiple rounds toward the White House. He then pulled the weapon back from the fence and ran down the sidewalk from west to east, toward 15th Street, continuing to fire through the fence as he an. When Duran paused to empty his magazine and reload, Harry Michael Rakosky, a tourist, tackled him. Two other citizens, Kenneth Alan Davis and Robert Edward Haines, ran over and assisted Rakosky in subduing Duran until Secret Service Uniformed Division officers arrived seconds later. Much of this incident - most notably the heroic action of the citizens - was videotaped by Jerome Kenneth Agan, a tourist who was filming the White House when Duran began shooting. he videotape depicts Duran from the point he ran down Pennsylvania Avenue firing his weapon, to when he was taken into Secret Service custody

Uniformed Division officers on the north grounds of the White House responded to the shots instantaneously. Several officers had drawn their


weapons and sighted on Duran, but held their fire when he was tackled by Mr. Rakosky. Although the quick thinking heroism of he citizens understandably eclipsed the actions of the Secret Service, the officers on duty nonetheless responded courageously and effectively under fire.

Specifically, an Emergency Response Team (RT) officer was patrolling the north grounds when Duran opened fire. Using the trees as cover, that officer ran across the north lawn of the White House toward Duran, drawing his weapon as he ran. The videotape of the incident shows the officer running toward Duran as Duran is shooting in the officer's direction. When the gunfire stopped, the officer saw Duran reach toward his left coat pocket. As the officer neared the fence, he pointed his weapon at Duran; Before he could shoot, he saw a citizen lunge toward Duran. The officer held his fire, holstered his weapon, and climbed over the fence. He and a sergeant, who ran down Pennsylvania Avenue from the Northwest Gate, were the first two officers to reach Duran. The officer held Duran to the ground while ordering the citizens to move away from the area. He heard one of the citizens say, "Thanks for not shooting me." Duran then responded, "I wish you had shot me." The officer recovered a magazine from Duran’s coat pocket loaded with thirty rounds of live ammunition.


A second ERT officer also was patrolling the north grounds, east of the North Portico, when he heard gun shots and saw a crowd of people running. He drew his weapon and ran toward the fence. Before the officer was able to fire, Duran was tackled. The officer then climbed over the fence and assisted the first officer.

When the shooting began, an ERT sergeant who was designated as the ERT team leader, ran east across the North Lawn behind the firs officer, also using the trees for cover. After the citizens tackled Duran, the sergeant ran out the Northeast Gate and down the sidewalk to assist in placing Duran under arrest. The ERT sergeant then notified the PPD Command Center that the subject had been apprehended.

At the time of the shooting, President Clinton was watching television in a room on the south side of the Residence. PPD agents responded immediately to the President upon shots being fired. The President was the only protectee in the White House at that time, and was in no danger from this incident.

Duran was placed under arrest and transported to a Secret Service holding area n the Northwest Gate. Upon searching him, the Secret Service


recovered one-page, handwritten note identifying himself and his wife and directing the Secret Service to his vehicle, sating that it was parked near the White House. A lookout was broadcast, and approximately thirty minutes after his arrest, Duran's pick-up truck, bearing Colorado tag 23822JX, was located by a Uniformed Division K-9 officer. The truck was checked for explosives and eventually searched. Officers recovered Mossberg 410 gauge shotgun, many boxes of ammunition, several gun-related items, and nerve gas antidote. The truck also contained several documents, including an atlas bearing a series of handwritten notes, one of which said "Kill the Pres!"

Duran fired at least twenty-nine shots at the White House [8] Miraculously, though there were people on the north grounds at the time, no one was injured in the attack. Eleven of the rounds struck the White House facade. One bullet penetrated a window in the Press Briefing Room in the West Wing.

[8 Twenty-nine rounds were ultimately recovered. However, the magazine Duran used holds a total of thirty rounds, and it was empty when recovered.]


Overall, the Secret Service responded efficiently and effectively to the shooting. ERT officers responded to the shooter, courageously moving toward Duran with only trees for cover. As the first shots were fired, PPD agents immediately responded to the President who was not in danger from the gunfire. ERT officers apprehended Duran within seconds of the last shot being fired, and Uniformed Division officers quickly determined that there were no injuries and secured the crime scene.

Duran was arrested and ultimately convicted on a ten count, superseding indictment charging him with Attempted Murder of the President of the United States, [9] four counts of Forcible Assault on an Officer of the United States, Possession of a Firearm by a Convicted Felon, Injury and Depredation Against Property of the United States (namely the White House), Carrying and Use of a Firearm During a Crime of Violence, and Interstate Transportation of a Firearm: Duran asserted an insanity defense at trial. Duran's trial began on March 16, 1995, before United States District Court

[9 Duran's conviction on the attempted assassination charge was based, in part, on evidence regarding an individual, Dennis Basso, who resembles President Clinton, and who was walking across the north grounds with a tour group. Immediately before Duran started shooting, witnesses pointed out Basso and declared that he was the President. The bullets fired hit near the area where Basso was standing.]


Judge Charles R. Richey and on April 4, 1995, he was found guilty on all counts. Duran is scheduled to be sentenced on June 29, 1995. [10]

Prior to this incident, Duran was not on record with the Secret Service's Intelligence Division. On October 1, 1994, Duran's wife, Ingrid Duran, filed missing person Report with the El Paso County Sheriff' s Office, in Colorado, stating that he had been missing since September 30, 1994. On October 17, she contacted the FBI in Colorado Springs. Ingrid Duran informed the FBI that Duran had been missing for two weeks. She so Reported that Duran had called her on October 15, 1994, stating that he was preparing to do something drastic. During that conversation, Duran stated that he would be killed in the "assault" that he was pluming. He refused to tell her where he was headed, although she believed that he was in Texas or elsewhere in the central time zone of the United States. The FBI agent’s report of that interview contains no reference to any Secret Service protectee or politics in any way. Thus, there is no basis to conclude that the Secret Service should have been notified prior to the shooting that Duran posed a threat to the President.

[10 The Review did not incorporate testimony presented at Duran's trial in its Classified Report.]


At the time of the shooting, Duran was twenty-six Years old and last resided in Widefield, Colorado. He has a prior criminal record and received a Dishonorable Discharge from the United States Army in 1993. Before leaving Colorado, Duran told several people that he intended to kill President Clinton, although he did not provide a time frame. None of these individuals informed an local or federal law enforcement agency, including the Secret Service, of Duran's statements.

Investigators determined that Duran was in the D.C. Metropolitan area for twelve days before October 29. No evidence has been discovered that suggests that Duran was near the President, or that he attempted to get near the President, prior to the October 29 shooting incident. There is also no evidence that Duran had co-conspirators.




The United States Secret Service is recognized as, and is, the most effective protective security organization in the world. Many of its protective methodologies are viewed as innovative, and through its extreme professionalism, the Secret Service has established the standard against which a11 other protective security organizations measure themselves. In light of the findings made during this investigation, however, the Review, in consultation with the Advisory Committee, has identified certain areas where the Secret Service should implement changes in its operations to further enhance the security of the President, the First Family, and the White House Complex.

In its Classified Report, the Review made eleven major recommendations. Six of these are set forth below.[11] The remaining five recommendations pertain to issues such as improving the monitoring of the restricted air space around the White House Complex, increasing training opportunities for Secret Service personnel, and installing security enhancements to the White House Complex. These recommendations are not included here for security reasons. In addition, the Review made numerous

[11 A number of these have been edited for security reasons.]


specific recommendations pertaining to the Corder incident, the Duran incident, air and ground security issues at the White House Complex, and the Secret Service's Intelligence Operation at the conclusion of each chapter in the Classified Report. These specific recommendations are so omitted. The following six major recommendations have been deemed appropriate for disclosure to the public.


The Review recommends that representatives from the Department of the Treasury (including the Secret Service) and the Department of Transportation (including the FAA) convene to consider a variety of changes to the civil air traffic rules that would enhance the security of the White House Complex without unduly hindering air traffic in the Washington, D.C. area.


Three unrelated Law enforcement agencies share jurisdiction over the perimeter immediately adjacent to the White House Complex: the Secret Service, the United States Park Police and the MPD of the District of Columbia. These agencies should enter into a Memorandum of Understanding


(MOU) concerning the coordination of their respective resources to ensure adequate security around the White House Complex, supplemented by annual review by all three entities regarding the efficacy and handling of incidents and procedures. The Review recommends that the MOU provide for the designation of a lead agency dependent on the violation, not the physical location of the suspect.


During crises at the White House Complex, the Secret Service, other federal and local law enforcement agencies, and fire, rescue and ordnance squads are among the many Components that respond either pursuant to statute or by agreement. A dedicated forensic group composed of personnel from the various federal and local components that participate during emergencies t the White House Complex should be established. This forensic group Would be responsible for collecting evidence, preserving the incident scene, and for coordinating access to the White House grounds It those times.



Major incidents at the White House command the attention and interest of multiple law enforcement organizations, the media, and spectators. Essential prompt response would be improved by (i) upgraded communications among the law enforcement agencies and the various White House security posts and (ii) a comprehensive protocol which establishes that immediate operational command and control must be assumed by the Secret Service.


The Department of the Treasury, through the Office of the Under Secretary (Enforcement), will ensure the Secret Service's implementation of the Recommendations. The Department of the Treasury will assist the Secret Service in removing obstacles to the speedy implementation of security measures. Finally, the Department of the Treasury and the Department of the Defense will ensure that ongoing, sensitive security-related projects have structured, policy-level oversight.



Any plan to reroute traffic from the segment of Pennsylvania Avenue front of the White House essentially affects local vehicular travel and commuter interests. After careful consideration of the information that has been provided, the Review is not able to identify any alternative to prohibiting vehicular traffic on Pennsylvania Avenue that would ensure the protection of the President and others in the White House Complex from explosive devices carried by vehicles near the perimeter. For the same reasons, the Review recommends prohibiting vehicular traffic on both State Place and the segment of South Executive Avenue that connects into State Place. The Review would prefer to recommend limiting traffic traveling on the segment of Pennsylvania Avenue m front of the White House to small and medium size passenger vehicles. However, because the Review has been informed that it is impossible to implement a traffic system that would exclude only trucks, buses, and large vehicles, the Review must recommend excluding all vehicular traffic from the area between Madison Place and 17th Street and converting this segment to pedestrian mall. There is significant evidence that this plan should significantly


enhance the accessibility of the White House to visitors, but the Review recognizes that this step requires consultation among all interested parties. (See diagram of proposed pedestrian access areas on the following page.)





The White House Security Review recommends prohibiting vehicular traffic from traveling along the segment of Pennsylvania Avenue that runs from Madison Place to 17th Street. The Review proposes to converting that area to pedestrian mall or park. Based on consultations with experts on security, public access, and the history of the White House, it is the opinion of the Review that this proposal will provide the general public with maximum pedestrian access to our nation’s most important historic structure while averting a verified security concern.

The White House is, without question, a house unlike any other. For almost two hundred years it has symbolized the ultimate prize in this country's system Of elected government, the American presidency. The structure evokes the combination of prestige and constitutional authority that we vest in its principal occupant to influence domestic affairs and global politics. Whoever resides in the White House, by definition, assumes primacy among world leaders.


At the same time, the White House is a symbol of our very nation and the American people. First among federal buildings, it is national treasure that reflects our unique heritage. Perhaps the most "American" aspect of the White House is its accessibility, as evidenced by the millions of Americans and foreign visitors who visit there each year. Since President Jefferson's day, the White House has been an emphatically public residence - the "House of the People," which they may either enter or look upon without obstruction. In contrast, the great palaces of Europe were set within planned parks, high walls and fences designed with protection in mind. But the White House grounds were developed at a time when security was not a gelt concern in the United States. The opeMess of the White House to pedestrian visitors is therefore distinctive. Where else in the world can a citizen secure a ticket to enter and tour the actual residence of the head of state and government?

The Review's proposal to prohibit vehicular traffic from travelling along the segment of Pennsylvania Avenue that runs between Madison Place and 17th Street will significantly enhance the public's access to their White House. This concept will ensure that pedestrians may enter and enjoy the White House and its grounds, and feel that distinctively American closeness to those in high office. At the same time, the proposal will reduce significantly


the security risk posed to the White House, its residents, employees, and visitors by vehicles carrying explosives.

For similar reasons, the Review also proposes to prohibit vehicles from traveling on either Stare Place or the segment of South Executive Avenue that runs into State Place.

The following experts consulted by the Review supported the conversion of Pennsylvania Avenue to a pedestrian mall:

Pennsylvania Ave. Closure || Peace Park